F07PAF (DSPSV) (PDF version)
F07 Chapter Contents
F07 Chapter Introduction
NAG Library Manual

NAG Library Routine Document


Note:  before using this routine, please read the Users' Note for your implementation to check the interpretation of bold italicised terms and other implementation-dependent details.

+ Contents

    1  Purpose
    7  Accuracy

1  Purpose

F07PAF (DSPSV) computes the solution to a real system of linear equations
AX=B ,
where A is an n by n symmetric matrix stored in packed format and X and B are n by r matrices.

2  Specification

REAL (KIND=nag_wp)  AP(*), B(LDB,*)
The routine may be called by its LAPACK name dspsv.

3  Description

F07PAF (DSPSV) uses the diagonal pivoting method to factor A as A=UDUT if UPLO='U' or A=LDLT if UPLO='L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1 by 1 and 2 by 2 diagonal blocks. The factored form of A is then used to solve the system of equations AX=B.

4  References

Anderson E, Bai Z, Bischof C, Blackford S, Demmel J, Dongarra J J, Du Croz J J, Greenbaum A, Hammarling S, McKenney A and Sorensen D (1999) LAPACK Users' Guide (3rd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia http://www.netlib.org/lapack/lug
Golub G H and Van Loan C F (1996) Matrix Computations (3rd Edition) Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Higham N J (2002) Accuracy and Stability of Numerical Algorithms (2nd Edition) SIAM, Philadelphia

5  Parameters

1:     UPLO – CHARACTER(1)Input
On entry: if UPLO='U', the upper triangle of A is stored.
If UPLO='L', the lower triangle of A is stored.
Constraint: UPLO='U' or 'L'.
2:     N – INTEGERInput
On entry: n, the number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A.
Constraint: N0.
3:     NRHS – INTEGERInput
On entry: r, the number of right-hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrix B.
Constraint: NRHS0.
4:     AP(*) – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the dimension of the array AP must be at least max1,N×N+1/2.
On entry: the n by n symmetric matrix A, packed by columns.
More precisely,
  • if UPLO='U', the upper triangle of A must be stored with element Aij in APi+jj-1/2 for ij;
  • if UPLO='L', the lower triangle of A must be stored with element Aij in APi+2n-jj-1/2 for ij.
On exit: the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A=UDUT or A=LDLT as computed by F07PDF (DSPTRF), stored as a packed triangular matrix in the same storage format as A.
5:     IPIV(N) – INTEGER arrayOutput
On exit: details of the interchanges and the block structure of D. More precisely,
  • if IPIVi=k>0, dii is a 1 by 1 pivot block and the ith row and column of A were interchanged with the kth row and column;
  • if UPLO='U' and IPIVi-1=IPIVi=-l<0, di-1,i-1d-i,i-1 d-i,i-1dii  is a 2 by 2 pivot block and the i-1th row and column of A were interchanged with the lth row and column;
  • if UPLO='L' and IPIVi=IPIVi+1=-m<0, diidi+1,idi+1,idi+1,i+1 is a 2 by 2 pivot block and the i+1th row and column of A were interchanged with the mth row and column.
6:     B(LDB,*) – REAL (KIND=nag_wp) arrayInput/Output
Note: the second dimension of the array B must be at least max1,NRHS.
On entry: the n by r right-hand side matrix B.
On exit: if INFO=0, the n by r solution matrix X.
7:     LDB – INTEGERInput
On entry: the first dimension of the array B as declared in the (sub)program from which F07PAF (DSPSV) is called.
Constraint: LDBmax1,N.
8:     INFO – INTEGEROutput
On exit: INFO=0 unless the routine detects an error (see Section 6).

6  Error Indicators and Warnings

Errors or warnings detected by the routine:
If INFO=-i, the ith argument had an illegal value. An explanatory message is output, and execution of the program is terminated.
If INFO=i, dii is exactly zero. The factorization has been completed, but the block diagonal matrix D is exactly singular, so the solution could not be computed.

7  Accuracy

The computed solution for a single right-hand side, x^ , satisfies an equation of the form
A+E x^=b ,
E1 = Oε A1
and ε  is the machine precision. An approximate error bound for the computed solution is given by
x^-x1 x1 κA E1 A1 ,
where κA = A-11 A1 , the condition number of A  with respect to the solution of the linear equations. See Section 4.4 of Anderson et al. (1999) and Chapter 11 of Higham (2002) for further details.
F07PBF (DSPSVX) is a comprehensive LAPACK driver that returns forward and backward error bounds and an estimate of the condition number. Alternatively, F04BJF solves AX=B  and returns a forward error bound and condition estimate. F04BJF calls F07PAF (DSPSV) to solve the equations.

8  Further Comments

The total number of floating point operations is approximately 13 n3 + 2n2r , where r  is the number of right-hand sides.
The complex analogues of F07PAF (DSPSV) are F07PNF (ZHPSV) for Hermitian matrices, and F07QNF (ZSPSV) for symmetric matrices.

9  Example

This example solves the equations
Ax=b ,
where A  is the symmetric matrix
A = -1.81 2.06 0.63 -1.15 2.06 1.15 1.87 4.20 0.63 1.87 -0.21 3.87 -1.15 4.20 3.87 2.07   and   b = 0.96 6.07 8.38 9.50 .
Details of the factorization of A  are also output.

9.1  Program Text

Program Text (f07pafe.f90)

9.2  Program Data

Program Data (f07pafe.d)

9.3  Program Results

Program Results (f07pafe.r)

F07PAF (DSPSV) (PDF version)
F07 Chapter Contents
F07 Chapter Introduction
NAG Library Manual

© The Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd, Oxford, UK. 2012