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Chapter Contents
Chapter Introduction
NAG Toolbox

# NAG Toolbox: nag_specfun_opt_heston_price (s30na)

## Purpose

nag_specfun_opt_heston_price (s30na) computes the European option price given by Heston's stochastic volatility model.

## Syntax

[p, ifail] = s30na(calput, x, s, t, sigmav, kappa, corr, var0, eta, grisk, r, q, 'm', m, 'n', n)
[p, ifail] = nag_specfun_opt_heston_price(calput, x, s, t, sigmav, kappa, corr, var0, eta, grisk, r, q, 'm', m, 'n', n)

## Description

nag_specfun_opt_heston_price (s30na) computes the price of a European option using Heston's stochastic volatility model. The return on the asset price, S$S$, is
 (dS)/S = (r − q) dt + sqrt(vt) d Wt(1) $dS S = (r-q) dt + vt d W t (1)$
and the instantaneous variance, vt${v}_{t}$, is defined by a mean-reverting square root stochastic process,
 dvt = κ (η − vt) dt + σv sqrt(vt) d Wt(2) , $dvt = κ ( η-vt ) dt + σv vt d W t (2) ,$
where r$r$ is the risk free annual interest rate; q$q$ is the annual dividend rate; vt${v}_{t}$ is the variance of the asset price; σv${\sigma }_{v}$ is the volatility of the volatility, sqrt(vt)$\sqrt{{v}_{t}}$; κ$\kappa$ is the mean reversion rate; η$\eta$ is the long term variance. dWt(i)$d{W}_{t}^{\left(\mathit{i}\right)}$, for i = 1,2$\mathit{i}=1,2$, denotes two correlated standard Brownian motions with
 ℂov [ d Wt(1) , d Wt(2) ] = ρ d t . $ℂov [ d W t (1) , d W t (2) ] = ρ d t .$
The option price is computed by evaluating the integral transform given by Lewis (2000) using the form of the characteristic function discussed by Albrecher et al. (2007), see also Kilin (2006).
 Pcall = S e − qT − X e − rT 1/π Re[∫0 + i / 2∞ + i / 2e − ikX( Ĥ (k,v,T) )/( k2 − ik )dk] , $Pcall = S e-qT - X e-rT 1π Re[ ∫ 0+i/2 ∞+i/2 e-ikX- H^ (k,v,T) k2 - ik d k ] ,$ (1)
where X = ln(S / X) + (rq) T $\stackrel{-}{X}=\mathrm{ln}\left(S/X\right)+\left(r-q\right)T$ and
 Ĥ (k,v,T) = exp((2κη)/(σv2)[tg − ln((1 − he − ξt)/(1 − h))] + vtg[(1 − e − ξt)/(1 − he − ξt)]) , $H^ (k,v,T) = exp( 2κη σv2 [ tg - ln( 1-he-ξt 1-h ) ] + vt g [ 1-e-ξt 1-he-ξt ] ) ,$
 g = (1/2) (b − ξ) ,   h = (b − ξ)/(b + ξ) ,   t = σv2 T / 2 , $g = 12 (b-ξ) , h = b-ξ b+ξ , t = σv2 T/2 ,$
 ξ = [b2 + 4(k2 − ik)/(σv2)](1/2) , $ξ = [ b2 + 4 k2-ik σv2 ] 12 ,$
 b = 2/(σv2) [(1 − γ + ik)ρσv + sqrt( κ2 − γ(1 − γ) σv2 )] $b = 2 σv2 [ ( 1-γ+ik ) ρσv + κ2 - γ(1-γ) σv2 ]$
with t = σv2 T / 2 $t={\sigma }_{v}^{2}T/2$. Here γ$\gamma$ is the risk aversion parameter of the representative agent with 0γ1$0\le \gamma \le 1$ and γ(1γ) σv2 κ2 $\gamma \left(1-\gamma \right){\sigma }_{v}^{2}\le {\kappa }^{2}$. The value γ = 1 $\gamma =1$ corresponds to λ = 0$\lambda =0$, where λ$\lambda$ is the market price of risk in Heston (1993) (see Lewis (2000) and Rouah and Vainberg (2007)).
The price of a put option is obtained by put-call parity.

## References

Albrecher H, Mayer P, Schoutens W and Tistaert J (2007) The little Heston trap Wilmott Magazine January 2007 83–92
Heston S (1993) A closed-form solution for options with stochastic volatility with applications to bond and currency options 6 347–343 Review of Financial Studies
Kilin F (2006) Accelerating the calibration of stochastic volatility models MPRA Paper No. 2975 http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/2975/
Lewis A L (2000) Option valuation under stochastic volatility Finance Press, USA
Rouah F D and Vainberg G (2007) Option Pricing Models and Volatility using Excel-VBA John Wiley and Sons, Inc

## Parameters

### Compulsory Input Parameters

1:     calput – string (length ≥ 1)
Determines whether the option is a call or a put.
calput = 'C'${\mathbf{calput}}=\text{'C'}$
A call. The holder has a right to buy.
calput = 'P'${\mathbf{calput}}=\text{'P'}$
A put. The holder has a right to sell.
Constraint: calput = 'C'${\mathbf{calput}}=\text{'C'}$ or 'P'$\text{'P'}$.
2:     x(m) – double array
m, the dimension of the array, must satisfy the constraint m1${\mathbf{m}}\ge 1$.
x(i)${\mathbf{x}}\left(i\right)$ must contain Xi${X}_{\mathit{i}}$, the i$\mathit{i}$th strike price, for i = 1,2,,m$\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{m}}$.
Constraint: x(i)z ​ and ​ x(i) 1 / z ${\mathbf{x}}\left(\mathit{i}\right)\ge z\text{​ and ​}{\mathbf{x}}\left(\mathit{i}\right)\le 1/z$, where z = x02am () $z=\mathbf{x02am}\left(\right)$, the safe range parameter, for i = 1,2,,m$\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{m}}$.
3:     s – double scalar
S$S$, the price of the underlying asset.
Constraint: sz ​ and ​s1.0 / z${\mathbf{s}}\ge z\text{​ and ​}{\mathbf{s}}\le 1.0/z$, where z = x02am()$z=\mathbf{x02am}\left(\right)$, the safe range parameter.
4:     t(n) – double array
n, the dimension of the array, must satisfy the constraint n1${\mathbf{n}}\ge 1$.
t(i)${\mathbf{t}}\left(i\right)$ must contain Ti${T}_{\mathit{i}}$, the i$\mathit{i}$th time, in years, to expiry, for i = 1,2,,n$\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{n}}$.
Constraint: t(i)z${\mathbf{t}}\left(\mathit{i}\right)\ge z$, where z = x02am () $z=\mathbf{x02am}\left(\right)$, the safe range parameter, for i = 1,2,,n$\mathit{i}=1,2,\dots ,{\mathbf{n}}$.
5:     sigmav – double scalar
The volatility, σv${\sigma }_{v}$, of the volatility process, sqrt(vt)$\sqrt{{v}_{t}}$. Note that a rate of 20% should be entered as 0.2$0.2$.
Constraint: sigmav > 0.0${\mathbf{sigmav}}>0.0$.
6:     kappa – double scalar
κ$\kappa$, the long term mean reversion rate of the volatility.
Constraint: kappa > 0.0${\mathbf{kappa}}>0.0$.
7:     corr – double scalar
The correlation between the two standard Brownian motions for the asset price and the volatility.
Constraint: 1.0corr1.0$-1.0\le {\mathbf{corr}}\le 1.0$.
8:     var0 – double scalar
The initial value of the variance, vt${v}_{t}$, of the asset price.
Constraint: var00.0${\mathbf{var0}}\ge 0.0$.
9:     eta – double scalar
η$\eta$, the long term mean of the variance of the asset price.
Constraint: eta > 0.0${\mathbf{eta}}>0.0$.
10:   grisk – double scalar
The risk aversion parameter, γ$\gamma$, of the representative agent.
Constraint: 0.0grisk1.0$0.0\le {\mathbf{grisk}}\le 1.0$ and grisk × (1.0grisk) × sigmav × sigmavkappa × kappa${\mathbf{grisk}}×\left(1.0-{\mathbf{grisk}}\right)×{\mathbf{sigmav}}×{\mathbf{sigmav}}\le {\mathbf{kappa}}×{\mathbf{kappa}}$.
11:   r – double scalar
r$r$, the annual risk-free interest rate, continuously compounded. Note that a rate of 5% should be entered as 0.05.
Constraint: r0.0${\mathbf{r}}\ge 0.0$.
12:   q – double scalar
q$q$, the annual continuous yield rate. Note that a rate of 8% should be entered as 0.08.
Constraint: q0.0${\mathbf{q}}\ge 0.0$.

### Optional Input Parameters

1:     m – int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: The dimension of the array x.
The number of strike prices to be used.
Constraint: m1${\mathbf{m}}\ge 1$.
2:     n – int64int32nag_int scalar
Default: The dimension of the array t.
The number of times to expiry to be used.
Constraint: n1${\mathbf{n}}\ge 1$.

ldp

### Output Parameters

1:     p(ldp,n) – double array
ldpm$\mathit{ldp}\ge {\mathbf{m}}$.
The leading m × n${\mathbf{m}}×{\mathbf{n}}$ part of the array p contains the computed option prices.
2:     ifail – int64int32nag_int scalar
${\mathrm{ifail}}={\mathbf{0}}$ unless the function detects an error (see [Error Indicators and Warnings]).

## Error Indicators and Warnings

Errors or warnings detected by the function:

Cases prefixed with W are classified as warnings and do not generate an error of type NAG:error_n. See nag_issue_warnings.

ifail = 1${\mathbf{ifail}}=1$
On entry, calput = 'C'${\mathbf{calput}}=\text{'C'}$ or 'P'$\text{'P'}$.
ifail = 2${\mathbf{ifail}}=2$
On entry, m0${\mathbf{m}}\le 0$.
ifail = 3${\mathbf{ifail}}=3$
On entry, n0${\mathbf{n}}\le 0$.
ifail = 4${\mathbf{ifail}}=4$
On entry, x(i) < z${\mathbf{x}}\left(\mathit{i}\right) or x(i) > 1 / z${\mathbf{x}}\left(\mathit{i}\right)>1/z$, where z = x02am()$z=\mathbf{x02am}\left(\right)$, the safe range parameter.
ifail = 5${\mathbf{ifail}}=5$
On entry, s < z${\mathbf{s}} or s > 1.0 / z${\mathbf{s}}>1.0/z$, where z = x02am()$z=\mathbf{x02am}\left(\right)$, the safe range parameter.
ifail = 6${\mathbf{ifail}}=6$
On entry, t(i) < z${\mathbf{t}}\left(\mathit{i}\right), where z = x02am()$z=\mathbf{x02am}\left(\right)$, the safe range parameter.
ifail = 7${\mathbf{ifail}}=7$
On entry, sigmav0.0${\mathbf{sigmav}}\le 0.0$.
ifail = 8${\mathbf{ifail}}=8$
On entry, kappa0.0${\mathbf{kappa}}\le 0.0$.
ifail = 9${\mathbf{ifail}}=9$
On entry, |corr| > 1.0$|{\mathbf{corr}}|>1.0$.
ifail = 10${\mathbf{ifail}}=10$
On entry, var0 < 0.0${\mathbf{var0}}<0.0$.
ifail = 11${\mathbf{ifail}}=11$
On entry, eta0.0${\mathbf{eta}}\le 0.0$.
ifail = 12${\mathbf{ifail}}=12$
 On entry, grisk < 0.0${\mathbf{grisk}}<0.0$ or grisk > 1.0${\mathbf{grisk}}>1.0$, or grisk × (1.0 − grisk) × sigmav × sigmav > kappa × kappa${\mathbf{grisk}}×\left(1.0-{\mathbf{grisk}}\right)×{\mathbf{sigmav}}×{\mathbf{sigmav}}>{\mathbf{kappa}}×{\mathbf{kappa}}$.
ifail = 13${\mathbf{ifail}}=13$
On entry, r < 0.0${\mathbf{r}}<0.0$.
ifail = 14${\mathbf{ifail}}=14$
On entry, q < 0.0${\mathbf{q}}<0.0$.
ifail = 16${\mathbf{ifail}}=16$
On entry, ldp < m$\mathit{ldp}<{\mathbf{m}}$.
W ifail = 17${\mathbf{ifail}}=17$
Quadrature has not converged to the required accuracy. However the result returned should be a reasonable approximation.

## Accuracy

The accuracy of the output is determined by the accuracy of the numerical quadrature used to evaluate the integral in (1). An adaptive method is used which evaluates the integral to within a tolerance of max (108, 1010 × |I| ) $\mathrm{max}\phantom{\rule{0.125em}{0ex}}\left({10}^{-8},{10}^{-10}×|I|\right)$, where |I|$|I|$ is the absolute value of the integral.

None.

## Example

```function nag_specfun_opt_heston_price_example
put = 'C';
s = 100.0;
r = 0.05;
q = 0.0;
gamma=1.0;
kappa = 2.0;
eta = 0.01;
var0 = 0.01;
sigmav = 0.225;
corr = 0.0;
x = [100.0];
t = [0.5];

[p, ifail] = ...
nag_specfun_opt_heston_price(put, x, s, t, sigmav, kappa, corr, var0, eta, gamma, r, q);

fprintf('\nHeston''s Stochastic Volatility Model\n European Call :\n');
fprintf(' Spot                   =  %9.4f\n', s);
fprintf(' Volatility of vol      =  %9.4f\n', sigmav);
fprintf(' Mean reversion         =  %9.4f\n', kappa);
fprintf(' Correlation            =  %9.4f\n', corr);
fprintf(' Variance               =  %9.4f\n', eta);
fprintf(' Mean of variance       =  %9.4f\n', var0);
fprintf(' Risk aversion          =  %9.4f\n', gamma);
fprintf(' Rate                   =  %9.4f\n', r);
fprintf(' Dividend               =  %9.4f\n\n', 1);

fprintf('   Strike    Expiry   Option Price\n');
for i=1:1
for j=1:1
fprintf('%9.4f %9.4f %9.4f\n', x(i), t(j), p(i,j));
end
end
```
```

Heston's Stochastic Volatility Model
European Call :
Spot                   =   100.0000
Volatility of vol      =     0.2250
Mean reversion         =     2.0000
Correlation            =     0.0000
Variance               =     0.0100
Mean of variance       =     0.0100
Risk aversion          =     1.0000
Rate                   =     0.0500
Dividend               =     1.0000

Strike    Expiry   Option Price
100.0000    0.5000    4.0851

```
```function s30na_example
put = 'C';
s = 100.0;
r = 0.05;
q = 0.0;
gamma=1.0;
kappa = 2.0;
eta = 0.01;
var0 = 0.01;
sigmav = 0.225;
corr = 0.0;
x = [100.0];
t = [0.5];

[p, ifail] = s30na(put, x, s, t, sigmav, kappa, corr, var0, eta, gamma, r, q);

fprintf('\nHeston''s Stochastic Volatility Model\n European Call :\n');
fprintf(' Spot                   =  %9.4f\n', s);
fprintf(' Volatility of vol      =  %9.4f\n', sigmav);
fprintf(' Mean reversion         =  %9.4f\n', kappa);
fprintf(' Correlation            =  %9.4f\n', corr);
fprintf(' Variance               =  %9.4f\n', eta);
fprintf(' Mean of variance       =  %9.4f\n', var0);
fprintf(' Risk aversion          =  %9.4f\n', gamma);
fprintf(' Rate                   =  %9.4f\n', r);
fprintf(' Dividend               =  %9.4f\n\n', 1);

fprintf('   Strike    Expiry   Option Price\n');
for i=1:1
for j=1:1
fprintf('%9.4f %9.4f %9.4f\n', x(i), t(j), p(i,j));
end
end
```
```

Heston's Stochastic Volatility Model
European Call :
Spot                   =   100.0000
Volatility of vol      =     0.2250
Mean reversion         =     2.0000
Correlation            =     0.0000
Variance               =     0.0100
Mean of variance       =     0.0100
Risk aversion          =     1.0000
Rate                   =     0.0500
Dividend               =     1.0000

Strike    Expiry   Option Price
100.0000    0.5000    4.0851

```